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类型【址:a g 9 559⒐ v i p】1:陈伟霆 大小:lbYD5SSy58880KB 下载:ZuuEwh9j59922次
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日期:2020-08-04 17:47:56
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夏振林

1.【址:a g 9 559⒐ v i p】1  "O stormy people, unsad* and ev'r untrue, *variable And undiscreet, and changing as a vane, Delighting ev'r in rumour that is new, For like the moon so waxe ye and wane: Aye full of clapping, *dear enough a jane,* *worth nothing <12>* Your doom* is false, your constance evil preveth,** *judgment **proveth A full great fool is he that you believeth."
2.  12. Norice: nurse; French, "nourrice."
3.  A YEOMAN had he, and servants no mo' At that time, for *him list ride so* *it pleased him so to ride* And he was clad in coat and hood of green. A sheaf of peacock arrows<11> bright and keen Under his belt he bare full thriftily. Well could he dress his tackle yeomanly: His arrows drooped not with feathers low; And in his hand he bare a mighty bow. A nut-head <12> had he, with a brown visiage: Of wood-craft coud* he well all the usage: *knew Upon his arm he bare a gay bracer*, *small shield And by his side a sword and a buckler, And on that other side a gay daggere, Harnessed well, and sharp as point of spear: A Christopher on his breast of silver sheen. An horn he bare, the baldric was of green: A forester was he soothly* as I guess. *certainly
4.  25. Hailes: An abbey in Gloucestershire, where, under the designation of "the blood of Hailes," a portion of Christ's blood was preserved.
5.  Pandarus makes now a show of taking leave, but Cressida detains him, to speak of her affairs; then, the business talked over, he would again go, but first again asks his niece to arise and dance, and cast her widow's garments to mischance, because of the glad fortune that has befallen her. More curious than ever, she seeks to find out Pandarus' secret; but he still parries her curiosity, skilfully hinting all the time at her good fortune, and the wisdom of seizing on it when offered. In the end he tells her that the noble Troilus so loves her, that with her it lies to make him live or die -- but if Troilus dies, Pandarus shall die with him; and then she will have "fished fair." <14> He beseeches mercy for his friend:
6.  Chaucer is next found occupying a post which has not often been held by men gifted with his peculiar genius -- that of a county member. The contest between the Dukes of Gloucester and Lancaster, and their adherents, for the control of the Government, was coming to a crisis; and when the recluse and studious Chaucer was induced to offer himself to the electors of Kent as one of the knights of their shire -- where presumably he held property -- we may suppose that it was with the view of supporting his patron's cause in the impending conflict. The Parliament in which the poet sat assembled at Westminster on the 1st of October, and was dissolved on the 1st of November, 1386. Lancaster was fighting and intriguing abroad, absorbed in the affairs of his Castilian succession; Gloucester and his friends at home had everything their own way; the Earl of Suffolk was dismissed from the woolsack, and impeached by the Commons; and although Richard at first stood out courageously for the friends of his uncle Lancaster, he was constrained, by the refusal of supplies, to consent to the proceedings of Gloucester. A commission was wrung from him, under protest, appointing Gloucester, Arundel, and twelve other Peers and prelates, a permanent council to inquire into the condition of all the public departments, the courts of law, and the royal household, with absolute powers of redress and dismissal. We need not ascribe to Chaucer's Parliamentary exertions in his patron's behalf, nor to any malpractices in his official conduct, the fact that he was among the earliest victims of the commission.<9> In December 1386, he was dismissed from both his offices in the port of London; but he retained his pensions, and drew them regularly twice a year at the Exchequer until 1388. In 1387, Chaucer's political reverses were aggravated by a severe domestic calamity: his wife died, and with her died the pension which had been settled on her by Queen Philippa in 1366, and confirmed to her at Richard's accession in 1377. The change made in Chaucer's pecuniary position, by the loss of his offices and his wife's pension, must have been very great. It would appear that during his prosperous times he had lived in a style quite equal to his income, and had no ample resources against a season of reverse; for, on the 1st of May 1388, less than a year and a half after being dismissed from the Customs, he was constrained to assign his pensions, by surrender in Chancery, to one John Scalby. In May 1389, Richard II., now of age, abruptly resumed the reins of government, which, for more than two years, had been ably but cruelly managed by Gloucester. The friends of Lancaster were once more supreme in the royal councils, and Chaucer speedily profited by the change. On the 12th of July he was appointed Clerk of the King's Works at the Palace of Westminster, the Tower, the royal manors of Kennington, Eltham, Clarendon, Sheen, Byfleet, Childern Langley, and Feckenham, the castle of Berkhamstead, the royal lodge of Hathenburgh in the New Forest, the lodges in the parks of Clarendon, Childern Langley, and Feckenham, and the mews for the King's falcons at Charing Cross; he received a salary of two shillings per day, and was allowed to perform the duties by deputy. For some reason unknown, Chaucer held this lucrative office <10> little more than two years, quitting it before the 16th of September 1391, at which date it had passed into the hands of one John Gedney. The next two years and a half are a blank, so far as authentic records are concerned; Chaucer is supposed to have passed them in retirement, probably devoting them principally to the composition of The Canterbury Tales. In February 1394, the King conferred upon him a grant of L20 a year for life; but he seems to have had no other source of income, and to have become embarrassed by debt, for frequent memoranda of small advances on his pension show that his circumstances were, in comparison, greatly reduced. Things appear to have grown worse and worse with the poet; for in May 1398 he was compelled to obtain from the King letters of protection against arrest, extending over a term of two years. Not for the first time, it is true -- for similar documents had been issued at the beginning of Richard's reign; but at that time Chaucer's missions abroad, and his responsible duties in the port of London, may have furnished reasons for securing him against annoyance or frivolous prosecution, which were wholly wanting at the later date. In 1398, fortune began again to smile upon him; he received a royal grant of a tun of wine annually, the value being about L4. Next year, Richard II having been deposed by the son of John of Gaunt <11> -- Henry of Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster -- the new King, four days after hits accession, bestowed on Chaucer a grant of forty marks (L26, 13s. 4d.) per annum, in addition to the pension of L20 conferred by Richard II. in 1394. But the poet, now seventy-one years of age, and probably broken down by the reverses of the past few years, was not destined long to enjoy his renewed prosperity. On Christmas Eve of 1399, he entered on the possession of a house in the garden of the Chapel of the Blessed Mary of Westminster -- near to the present site of Henry VII.'s Chapel -- having obtained a lease from Robert Hermodesworth, a monk of the adjacent convent, for fifty-three years, at the annual rent of four marks (L2, 13s. 4d.) Until the 1st of March 1400, Chaucer drew his pensions in person; then they were received for him by another hand; and on the 25th of October, in the same year, he died, at the age of seventy-two. The only lights thrown by his poems on his closing days are furnished in the little ballad called "Good Counsel of Chaucer," -- which, though said to have been written when "upon his death-bed lying in his great anguish, "breathes the very spirit of courage, resignation, and philosophic calm; and by the "Retractation" at the end of The Canterbury Tales, which, if it was not foisted in by monkish transcribers, may be supposed the effect of Chaucer's regrets and self-reproaches on that solemn review of his life-work which the close approach of death compelled. The poet was buried in Westminster Abbey; <12> and not many years after his death a slab was placed on a pillar near his grave, bearing the lines, taken from an epitaph or eulogy made by Stephanus Surigonus of Milan, at the request of Caxton:

计划指导

1.  91. Up to the hollowness of the seventh sphere: passing up through the hollowness or concavity of the spheres, which all revolve round each other and are all contained by God (see note 5 to the Assembly of Fowls), the soul of Troilus, looking downward, beholds the converse or convex side of the spheres which it has traversed.
2.  And as I sat, the birdes heark'ning thus, Me thought that I heard voices suddenly, The most sweetest and most delicious That ever any wight, I *trow truely,* *verily believe* Heard in their life; for the harmony And sweet accord was in so good musike, That the voices to angels' most were like.
3.  6. Waimenting: bewailing; German, "wehklagen"
4.  48. "Domini est terra": Psalm xxiv. I; "The earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof." The first "nocturn" is now over, and the lessons from Scripture follow.
5.  Thereupon Philogenet professed humble repentance, and willingness to bear all hardship and chastisement for his past offence.
6.  Save such as succour'd were among the leaves From ev'ry storm that mighte them assail, Growing under the hedges and thick greves;* *groves, boughs And after that there came a storm of hail And rain in fere,* so that withoute fail *together The ladies nor the knights had not one thread Dry on them, so dropping was [all] their weed.* *clothing

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1.  IN the Proem to the Second Book, the poet hails the clear weather that enables him to sail out of those black waves in which his boat so laboured that he could scarcely steer -- that is, "the tempestuous matter of despair, that Troilus was in; but now of hope the kalendes begin." He invokes the aid of Clio; excuses himself to every lover for what may be found amiss in a book which he only translates; and, obviating any lover's objection to the way in which Troilus obtained his lady's grace - - through Pandarus' mediation -- says it seems to him no wonderful thing:
2.  Then alle they answered her in fere* *together So passingly well, and so pleasantly, That it was a [most] blissful noise to hear. But, I n'ot* how, it happen'd suddenly *know not As about noon the sun so fervently Wax'd hote, that the pretty tender flow'rs Had lost the beauty of their fresh colours,
3.  The queen in white, that was of great beauty, Took by the hand the queen that was in green, And saide: "Sister, I have great pity Of your annoy, and of your troublous teen,* *injury, grief Wherein you and your company have been So long, alas! and if that it you please To go with me, I shall you do the ease,
4.  The plan of the volume does not demand an elaborate examination into the state of our language when Chaucer wrote, or the nice questions of grammatical and metrical structure which conspire with the obsolete orthography to make his poems a sealed book for the masses. The most important element in the proper reading of Chaucer's verses -- whether written in the decasyllabic or heroic metre, which he introduced into our literature, or in the octosyllabic measure used with such animated effect in "The House of Fame," "Chaucer's Dream," &c. -- is the sounding of the terminal "e" where it is now silent. That letter is still valid in French poetry; and Chaucer's lines can be scanned only by reading them as we would read Racine's or Moliere's. The terminal "e" played an important part in grammar; in many cases it was the sign of the infinitive -- the "n" being dropped from the end; at other times it pointed the distinction between singular and plural, between adjective and adverb. The pages that follow, however, being prepared from the modern English point of view, necessarily no account is taken of those distinctions; and the now silent "e" has been retained in the text of Chaucer only when required by the modern spelling, or by the exigencies of metre.
5.   Alas! Constance, thou has no champion, Nor fighte canst thou not, so well-away! But he that starf for our redemption, *died And bound Satan, and yet li'th where he lay, So be thy stronge champion this day: For, but Christ upon thee miracle kithe,* *show Withoute guilt thou shalt be slain *as swithe.* *immediately*
6.  The sergeant went, and hath fulfill'd this thing. But to the marquis now returne we; For now went he full fast imagining If by his wife's cheer he mighte see, Or by her wordes apperceive, that she Were changed; but he never could her find, But ever-in-one* alike sad** and kind. *constantly **steadfast

应用

1.  O LEWD book! with thy foul rudeness, Since thou hast neither beauty nor eloquence, Who hath thee caus'd or giv'n the hardiness For to appear in my lady's presence? I am full sicker* thou know'st her benevolence, *certain Full agreeable to all her abying,* *merit For of all good she is the best living.
2.  2. His paper: his certificate of completion of his apprenticeship.
3.  29. "For he who gives a gift, or doth a grace, Do it betimes, his thank is well the more" A paraphrase of the well-known proverb, "Bis dat qui cito dat." ("He gives twice who gives promptly")
4、  THE MERCHANT'S TALE.
5、  7. The Queen: Philippa of Hainault, wife of Edward III.

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  • 曲波 08-03

      APPROACHE gan the fatal destiny That Jovis hath in disposition, And to you angry Parcae,* Sisters three, *The Fates Committeth to do execution; For which Cressida must out of the town, And Troilus shall dwelle forth in pine,* *pain Till Lachesis his thread no longer twine.* *twist

  • 刘绍 08-03

      "And, if thou dreade not a sooth* to hear, *truth Then will I shew all openly by right, That thou hast made a full great leasing* here. *falsehood Thou say'st thy princes have thee given might Both for to slay and for to quick* a wight, -- *give life to Thou that may'st not but only life bereave; Thou hast none other power nor no leave.

  • 玛丽亚·格曼 08-03

       "For now I am ascertain'd thoroughly Of ev'ry thing that I desir'd to know." "I am right glad that I have said, soothly, Aught to your pleasure, if ye will me trow,"* *believe Quoth she again; "but to whom do ye owe Your service? and which wolle* ye honour, *will Tell me, I pray, this year, the Leaf or the Flow'r?"

  • 阿基米德 08-03

      25. Unhardy is unsely: the cowardly is unlucky; "nothing venture, nothing have;" German, "unselig," unhappy.

  • 张全明 08-02

    {  12 Chaucer has taken the story of Zenobia from Boccaccio's work "De Claris Mulieribus." ("Of Illustrious Women")

  • 哈尼亚 08-01

      32. "Clum," like "mum," a note of silence; but otherwise explained as the humming sound made in repeating prayers; from the Anglo-Saxon, "clumian," to mutter, speak in an under- tone, keep silence.}

  • 吴小川 08-01

      22. Launcelot: Arthur's famous knight, so accomplished and courtly, that he was held the very pink of chivalry.

  • 陈德和 08-01

      Of long service avaunt* I me no thing, *boast But as possible is me to die to-day, For woe, as he that hath been languishing This twenty winter; and well happen may A man may serve better, and *more to pay,* *with more satisfaction* In half a year, although it were no more. Than some man doth that served hath *full yore.* *for a long time*

  • 王立彬 07-31

       And after that, of herbes that there grew, They made, for blisters of the sun's burning, Ointmentes very good, wholesome, and new, Wherewith they went the sick fast anointing; And after that they went about gath'ring Pleasant salades, which they made them eat, For to refresh their great unkindly heat.

  • 王晓宇 07-29

    {  Cecilia came, when it was waxen night, With priestes, that them christen'd *all in fere;* *in a company* And afterward, when day was waxen light, Cecile them said with a full steadfast cheer,* *mien "Now, Christe's owen knightes lefe* and dear, *beloved Cast all away the workes of darkness, And arme you in armour of brightness.

  • 川乌 07-29

      The day gan failen, and the darke night, That reaveth* beastes from their business, *taketh away Berefte me my book for lack of light, And to my bed I gan me for to dress,* *prepare Full fill'd of thought and busy heaviness; For both I hadde thing which that I n'old,* *would not And eke I had not that thing that I wo'ld.

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